Afyonkarahisar Castle; The castle is a trachyte rock mass and has height of 226 meters. It was used as a fortified by the Hittite emperor II. Murshili in 1350 BC and have been an important base in Hapanuvo Helen Roman and Byzantine eras. There are a lot of temples dedicated to goddess Cybele and four large cisterns on top of the castle. In the time of Seljuk Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat the first, architect Bedrettin Cevhertas repaired the castle walls and built a palace and a small prayer room nearby. In Seljuk and Ottoman periods, also mentioned and named as Karahisar-i Sahip (Fort of the Owner) and Karahisar-i Devlet (Fort of the State) by the locals, since government treasures and valuables stored and prisoners and criminals kept in.
MOSQUE, KULLIYE AND CARAVANSERAIS
The Grand Mosque; Built by Nusretüddin Hasan Bey, the Provincial Governor of Sahip Ata Fahrettin Ali in 1273 A.C. Rests on 40 wooden columns which are decorated with stalactite headers. The Grand Mosque has three doors facing east, north and west with Seljuk-style carved, two sided pulpit covers and inscription on the marble altar.
The Grand Mosque is one of the unique examples of the Seljuk period architecture with its wooden structure and green-glazed, diamond shaped brick minaret.
Mevlevi or Turbe (Mausoleum) Mosque; Mevlevi started with Sultan Veled, from there peaked and spread throughout the world with the Sultan Divani. Mevlevi Mosque was built in 1844 by Abdulmecit as a mosques and dervish convent and undergone major repairs in 1905 in the era of Abdulhamit the II. Mevlevi Mosque is also called Turbe (Mausoleum) Mosque since it contains the tombs of Sultan Divani and the other Mevlevi sheikhs.
Misri Mosque; Misri Mosque is in Haji Misri Eyup street in Misri neighborhood. Misri Mosque was built by Evliya Kasım Pasha in 1483. Built with hewn stone and covered with two large domes. The base of the minaret is made with cut stone and the body of the minaret is built with sliced cut brick. Tiles with geometric patterns on its altar is the work of the Seljuk era.
Imaret (Gedik Ahmet Pasha) Kulliye; Imaret Kulliye was built by architect Ayaz Aga by order of Gedik Ahmet Pasha who is the Grand Vizier of Fatih Sultan Mehmet the conqueror of Istanbul, between 1472-1477 and composed of a Primary School ,a Madrasah, a Hammam and a Imaret (soup kitchen for poor). Imaret Mosque is one of the era’s most beautiful works of art is with its colored door, the altar, the pulpit and the interior decoration. Single balcony minaret is decorated with fluted twisted forms. Between the ribs are covered with hand painted dark blue tiles. Imaret Mosque was built separately and divided into two parts with a big middle archway and covered with two large domes. There are five small domed portico for prayers at the front.
Madrasa is a 26-domed building consists of a middle courtyard, rooms and portico on either side of the the courtyard, a big-domed iwan, a vaulted room with one side opens to the courtyard and a winter room (antechamber) and used as a museum between 1928 and 1996.
Hammam is still in use and has two separate sections as men and women,covered with 11 domes.
Boyalı Kulliye; Boyalı Kulliye has two Turbe (Mausoleum) and a Hanikah (a big structure for prayers and followers of a certain sect) built in Seljuk period and located in the Boyali village of the Sincanlı county. The structure has a ground floor with four corners, an upper floor covered with hewn stone, an eight square brick body, a pyramidal roof and known as the Kureys Baba Turbe (Mausoleum).
Sinanpasa Kulliye; Sinanpasa Kulliye has a Hammam, a Mosque, a Imaret (soup kitchen) a Primary School and graves in the courtyard, located in Sincanlı county district center. Sinanpasa Kulliye built by Grand Seigneur of Rumeli, Celaleddin Sinanpasa in 1525.
Kadınana Turbe (Mausoleum); Kadınana Turbe (Mausoleum) is in city center on Ambaryolu streeet. It is a square building with a dome, built in XIII. Century, by the Seljuk Sultan Keykubat the III. for Asiye Hatun, one of his three daughters who built numerous tombs for the people of Afyonkarahisar. There is only one sarcophagus tomb and an arched gate facing east.
Sultandagi Caravanserai (Sahipata Caravanserai); Sultandagı Caravanserai is in Sultandagi district of Afyonkarahisar. Built in 1249 by Fahreddin Ali Bin Huseyin who was a Provincial Governor of Seljuk Sultan Izzeddin Keykavus the II. There are rooms and winter sections around the courtyard, entered through the main door. There is also a small mosque resting on four pillars and arches in the center of the courtyard .
Cay Caravanserai; Cay Caravanserai is in Cay district of Afyonkarahisar. It is a closed type caravanserai with a courtyard and a stone Kulliye built during the Seljuk period under Seljuk Sultan Giyaseddin the III ruling. caravanserai courtyard and closed types. It is a masonry stone structure with four elephant’s foot (an architecture term form for big column), waulted over twelve pillars and an airshaft.
Egret (Anitkaya) Caravanserai; Egret (Anitkaya) Caravanserai is located in Anitkaya (Egret) village. Egret (Anitkaya) Caravanserai was built in 13th Century by seigniory of Germiyanogulları. There are three platforms in it and central platform is bigger than the others. It has cut stone pavement and two rows of elephant feets. Sides are covered with arches and has double marble columns and ornated with crown at sides of the door.
Doger Caravanserai; Döger Caravanserai is located in Doger village of Ihsaniye district. It is a work of Ottoman era and built by the Ottoman Sultan Murat the second. Consists of two parts of a two-storied resting house and a Develik (a place for camels or horses of the travelers) located next to the building. Upper floor of the two-storied resting house is the slleping section for the travelers and the lower floor is the resting place. The iwan in the middle is also a small mosque. The building is covered with local tuff stone cuttings.
HISTORIC RESIDENTIAL CENTERS (PHRYGIAN VALLEY)
Ayazini Church; Ayazini Church is a church carved into the rock surface of a tuff cliff in the entrance of Ayazini village of Ihsaniye District. Ayazini Church has a domed apse exterior carved into the rock surface. It was built around 1000 A.C. and has a monastery structure with the rooms carved to rock nearby.
Ayazini Rock Settlements; Ayazini Rock Settlements is covering a wide area also including the Ayazini Village and can be reached by going 4 kilometers to the right side on the 27. kilometer of Afyonkarahisar – Eskişehir road. This region consists of volcanic tuff rock cliffs which are easy to be processed as settlements. There are a lot of cultural markings of Hittite, Phrygian, Roman and Byzantine periods. You can see al lot of Chapels, multi-level rock settlements, different burial chambers (with lion reliefs, columns and multi-level rack systems) with different architectural features of different eras. the burial chambers) There are also lots of famous “fairy chimneys” or hoodoos (natural rock formations) like the ones in Cappadocia.
Kapıkaya 1 (Rock Door 1); Kapıkaya 1 is on the road from Doger village to Legen village. It is a temple with rock carvings thought to be made in 7th century B.C. Sides of a solid rock structure has beed cut and created a simple, carved rock temple with a gable. Goddess Cybele carved in relief on the niche in the bottom center of the facade. There are four stairs under the relief.
Kapıkaya 2 (Rock Door 2); Kapıkaya 2 is in the same area with Kapıkaya 1 and located in the rock formations between Emre Lake shore and Bayramaliler village. It is simulated from a wooden temple by cutting the western facade of a solid rock structure. There is a standing Goddess Cybele relief in a niche between the two sections of the ornated front side. It is thought to be made in 7th century B.C. and has a platform for the religious ceremonies of the time in front of the monument.
Aslankaya (Lion Rock); Aslankaya is a monument located in Emre Lake shore in Doger village of Ihsaniye District and thought to be made in 7th century B.C. Aslankaya is a temple facade with a gable, made by vertically cutting the south face of a high solid rock structure. There are two opposing sphinx (human-headed lion) sculptures in the beam gaps of gable and on the main façade there are two Goddess Cybele reliefs between the niche of two lion reliefs. The main facade is decorated with reliefs of geometric patterns. Two side faces of the monument has been cut and there is a relief of roaring rampant lion on both feet on the north side.
Göynüş Valley; Göynüş Valley is in Kayıhan village of İhsaniye District. It is a Phrygian settlement area and can be reached with 2 kilometer journey after making a left turn to North-East on the 36th kilometer of Afyonkarahisar – Eskişehir state highway. There are steep rocks of about 10 meters of height in the valley. There are small and square doos on facades of rock structures. You can reach the rooms which are rock-cut tombs of Phrygian period by entering these doors.
Aslantaş (Lion Stone); There are reliefs of two majestic lions, two lion puppies, a mass like the tree of life and a sun disk reaching two sides on the door gap of the front façade of Göynüş Aslantaş rock-cut tombs. Aslantaş is the tomb of an important king of Phrygia and thought to be made in 7th century B.C.
Kurtini Cave; Kurtini Cave is 226 meters long and located on 34th km from the Sandıklı District to Kocayayla region.
Buzluk Cave; Buzluk Cave is located near the peaks of Sultan Mountains on the south of the Dereçine village of Sultandağı District. Buzluk Cave has a very narrow entrance and icing observed in July and August. There are steam coming out from the cave in winter.
Balcam Cave; Balcam Cave is located 10 km away from the Emirdağ District. Balcam Cave used for religious ceremonies and full of stalactites, stalagmites and galleries
Kuzini Cave; Kuzini Cave is located 7 km from the Balçikhisar village of Şuhut District. Kuzini Cave has a lot of narrow corridors and a medium-sized gallery at the end.
Karacamal Cave; Karacamal Cave is located in Kocadere region which is 7 km from the Balçikhisar village of Şuhut District., Karacamal Cave has five galleries and is natural habitat of bats.
Fairy Chimneys (hoodoos, natural rock formations); Fairy Chimneys, as mentioned before, are unique, column-like, pyramidal, geographical rock formations on volcanic terrains caused by the wear process of water flooding. There are a lot of Fairy Chimneys with different types such as with-hat or hat-less according to the geological nature and type of volcanic terrain in İhsaniye, İscehisar, Bayat and Bolvadin districts Afyonkarahisar province. Fairy Chimneys near Minareli Dere in Özburun village of Bolvadin District are remarkable and has different structure than the others. There are also different types of Fairy Chimneys located on the slopes of Eyerli Mountain which is on the opposite side of the Mekan Plateau near İnpazarcık village of the Bayat District.